ANTIBIOTIC – antibiotics, or antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial used to target bacteria, and are often used in medical treatment of bacterial infections. They can either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria.
DYSBIOSIS – also called dysbacteriosis, this refers to microbial imbalance on or inside the body. Dysbiosis is most commonly reported as a condition in the digestive tract.
FERMENTATION – a chemical process that converts sugar and carbohydrates into acids, gases, and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Humans use fermentation to produce food and beverages.
PROBIOTIC – live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The term derives from the Latin preposition pro (“for”) and the Greek adjective βιωτικός (biotic), the latter deriving from the noun βίος (bios, “life”).
PREBIOTIC – generally refers to compounds (food ingredients) that induce the growth and/or activity of commensal microorganisms (eg bacteria and fungi) that contribute to the wellbeing of their host. A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon the host’s health.
SYMBIOSIS – interaction between two or more different biological species.
MICROBE – an organism that is microscopic.
MICROORGANISM – a microscopic living organism, single- or multiple-celled. Microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, protozoa and some fungi and algae. Viruses are also sometimes classified as microorganisms.
MICROBIOTA – sometimes called microflora; a community of symbiotic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms inhabiting either the surface of the body or its different cavities: the skin, mouth, ears, vagina and gastrointestinal tract, among others.
GUT MICROBIOTA – microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).
MICROBIOME – the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche, such as a gut microbiome referring to microbial genomes found in the gut.
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM – an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.